Academic Achievement Trajectories of Homeless and Highly Mobile Students: Resilience in the Context of Chronic and Acute Risk
This 2012 article, featured in the Child Development
journal, examines academic achievement data across third through eighth grades (N = 26,474), comparing students identified as homeless or highly mobile (HHM) with other students in the federal free meal program (FM), reduced price meals (RM), or neither (General). Achievement was lower as a function of rising risk status (General > RM > FM > HHM). Achievement gaps appeared stable or widened between HHM students and lower risk groups. Math and reading achievement were lower, and growth in math was slower in years of HHM identification, suggesting acute consequences of residential instability. Nonetheless, 45% of HHM students scored within or above the average range, suggesting academic resilience. Results underscore the need for research on risk and resilience processes among HHM students to address achievement disparities.
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Empty Seats: The Epidemic of Absenteeism Among Homeless Elementary Students
This 2015 report from the Institute for Children, Poverty, & Homelessness (ICPH)
, based on data on New York City public school elementary students, examines the relationship between school mobility, absenteeism, and school performance. Key findings include that homeless elementary students missed many more days of school than low-income housed students and non-low-income housed students; homeless children were chronically absent at almost twice the overall citywide rate; and school transfers greatly increase rates of chronic absenteeism. Chronic absenteeism also was correlated with higher rates of grade repetition and poor results on state assessment tests.
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Frequent Residential Mobility and Young Children's Well-Being
In this 2012 study, Child Trends
examines a group of children younger than six who have experienced five or more moves using nationally representative data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health
. They aim to understand some of the particular demographic characteristics of this group of frequent movers, as well as to see whether these children were more likely to have poor physical and/or mental health than similar children who did not experience frequent moves.
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Hidden in Plain Sight: Homeless Students in America's Public Schools
This report from Civic Enterprises
provides unique insights into the challenges faced by homeless students and proposed strategies for addressing these challenges. Based on focus groups with and surveys of State Coordinators for Homeless Education, local homeless education liaisons, and homeless youth, the report provides an overview of existing research on homeless students, sheds light on the challenges homeless students face and the supports they say they need to succeed, reports on the challenges educators face in trying to help homeless students, and recommends changes in policy and practice to help homeless students get on a path to adult success.
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Homeless Families Research Briefs, 2014-2018
This set of research briefs from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
explores issues related to the well-being and economic self-sufficiency of families and children experiencing homelessness. The briefs are based on data collected as part of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) Family Options Study
, a multi-site random assignment experiment designed to study the impact of various housing and services interventions on homeless families. Brief topics include:
- Child Separation among Families Experiencing Homelessness
- Hispanic Families Experiencing Homelessness
- Patterns of Benefit Receipt among Families who Experience Homelessness
- Child and Partner Transitions among Families Experiencing Homelessness
- Well-being of Young Children after Experiencing Homelessness
- Adolescent Well-Being after Experiencing Family Homelessness
- Are Homeless Families Connected to the Social Safety Net?
Visit the Homeless Families Research Briefs, 2014-2018 webpage.
Missed Opportunities: Youth Homelessness in America
This brief from Voices of Youth Count Initiative at Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago
is the first in a series of Research-to-Impact briefs by Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago on understanding and addressing youth homelessness. The brief highlights results from a national survey on unaccompanied youth homelessness in America. The study captures youth homelessness broadly, including sleeping on the streets, in shelters, running away, being kicked out, and couch surfing. Significantly, the lack of a high school diploma or GED correlates more strongly than any other risk factor with experiences of youth homelessness, with young people without a diploma or GED being 3.5 times (346%) more likely to experience homelessness than their peers who completed high school.
Visit the Missed Opportunities: Youth Homelessness in America webpage
Residential Instability and the McKinney-Vento Homeless Children and Education Program: What We Know, Plus Gaps in Research
This 2010 report from the Urban Institute
examines the McKinney-Vento homeless education program in the Washington metropolitan region. As part of the initiative, UI reviewed the literature on how residential instability affects academic outcomes among children; collected descriptive data on the extent of homelessness in the region's schools; and convened a group of local homeless education liaisons, state coordinators, and advocates to discuss local implementation of the program and types of data collected by program staff. This brief summarizes the literature and data collected during this reconnaissance and provides questions for future research on residential instability and the McKinney-Vento EHCY program.
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School Success in Motion: Protective Factors for Academic Achievement in Homeless and Highly Mobile Children
Suspension Hubs: The Rise in Suspensions Among Homeless Students
Toward Understanding Homelessness: The 2007 National Symposium on Homelessness Research
Why They Run: An In-depth Look at America's Runaway Youth