Trafficking and the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC)

NCHE Resources

Sex Trafficking of Minors: What Schools Need to Know to Recognize and Respond to the Trafficking of Students

This brief provides educators with an overview of the issue of minor sex trafficking and suggests specific steps that schools can take to respond to signs of trafficking among its students. It also offers suggestions for how State Coordinators for Homeless Education and local homeless education liaisons can help guide their states' and school districts' efforts to address trafficking within schools.
Download Sex Trafficking of Minors: What Schools Need to Know to Recognize and Respond to the Trafficking of Students.

Sample Forms, Materials, and Policies

Grossmont Union High School District (CA): Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) Protocol
 
This school district protocol provides specific guidance on how district employees should respond to suspected recruitment or actual exploitation by a student, a suspected CSEC victim, and/or a confirmed CSEC victim.
Download the Grossmont Union High School District (CA): Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) Protocol.
 
Madison Metropolitan School District (WI): Trafficking Protocol
 
This school district protocol provides specific guidance on how district employees should respond to suspected trafficking victims, including when immediate danger may be present.
Download the Madison Metropolitan School District (WI): Trafficking Protocol.

Virginia SB 259 Human Trafficking; Board of Education to Provide Information for Local School Division Staff

This Virginia state law requires the Virginia Board of Education, in collaboration with the Virginia Department of Social Services, to provide awareness and training materials for local school division staff on human trafficking, including strategies for the prevention of the trafficking of children.
View the full text of Virginia SB 259.

Other Resources

Bought and Sold: Recognizing and Assisting Youth Victims of Domestic Sex Trafficking

This guide from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Administration for Children and Families is for youth and family services professionals who come in direct contact with young people who may be sexually exploited or trafficked. Readers will learn who is most at risk, what to look for, what exploited and trafficked young people need, and where to get additional resources and support. 
Download Bought and Sold: Recognizing and Assisting Youth Victims of Domestic Sex Trafficking.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children/Sex Trafficking

This literature review from the U.S. Department of Justice's Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention(OJJDP) provides an overview of issues related to the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and sex trafficking, covering such topics as the definition of CSEC, antitrafficking legislation, characteristics of CSEC and sex trafficked children, pathways to CSEC involvement, and outcome evidence for CSEC prevention and intervention programs.
Download Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children/Sex Trafficking.

Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States

This report from The Institute of Medicine (IOM) examines the commercial sexual exploitation of minors within the United States. It offers recommendations concerning strategies for responding to commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States, new legislative approaches, and a research agenda. The report concludes that efforts to prevent, identify, and respond to the commercial sexual exploitation of minors in the United States require better collaborative approaches. These efforts need to confront demand and the individuals who commit and benefit from these crimes. The recommendations in the report have the potential to advance and strengthen the nation's emerging efforts to prevent, identify, and respond to commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors. 
Download Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States.

Faces of Human Trafficking Video Series

This video series from the U.S. Department of Justice's Office for Victims of Crime is intended to be used for outreach and education efforts of service providers, law enforcement, prosecutors, and others in the community. The series includes information about sex and labor trafficking, multidisciplinary approaches to serving victims of human trafficking, special considerations for youth victims, victims' legal needs, and voices of survivors. Accompanying the video series is a discussion guide, four fact sheets, and four posters that can be used to augment trainings and generate discussion.
Visit the Faces of Human Trafficking Video Series webpage.

Human Trafficking Awareness for the General Public

This free 1-hour online course from Stanford University Online provides basic training on human trafficking, aiming to educate people on how to spot it and what to do about it in their own communities. The training covers the definition of human trafficking, its prevalence, and the places and industries in which it occurs. It examines whom it affects and the techniques used to force people into trafficking and hold them there. The training assumes no prior knowledge of human trafficking.
Visit the Human Trafficking Awareness for the General Public training webpage.

Human Trafficking in America's Schools

Human trafficking currently is one of the world's most profitable criminal enterprises. Trafficking is not only occurring overseas; it is occurring right here in the United States, with schools becoming a target area for recruitment. This pioneering guide, funded through the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Safe and Healthy Students, will help school officials understand how human trafficking impacts schools; recognize the indicators of possible child trafficking; and develop policies, protocols, and partnerships to address and prevent the exploitation of children.
Download Human Trafficking in America's Schools.

Human Trafficking Prevalence and Child Welfare Risk Factors Among Homeless Youth: A Multi-City Study

This study from The Field Center at the University of Pennsylvania examines data from a three-city study conducted as part of a larger initiative by Covenant House International to research human trafficking among homeless youth encompassing nearly 1,000 young people across 13 cities. In particular, the study examines the history of child maltreatment, out-of-home placement, and other child welfare risk factors among youth who were sex trafficked or engaged in the sex trade to survive.
Download Human Trafficking Prevalence and Child Welfare Risk Factors Among Homeless Youth: A Multi-City Study.

Human Trafficking Trends in the United States: National Human Trafficking Resource Center 2007-2012
 
This report from The Polaris Project summarizes findings and trends from five years of data collected from the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC). The report is based on the information learned from NHTRC hotline interactions during the first five years of its operation by Polaris Project. It highlights the most common forms of human trafficking that are reported to the NHTRC and provides a revealing snapshot of human trafficking across the United States.
Download Human Trafficking Trends in the United States: National Human Trafficking Resource Center 2007-2012.

Labor and Sex Trafficking Among Homeless Youth
 
This website details findings from two groundbreaking studies of Covenant House youth by The Field Center for Children's Policy, Practice & Research at the University of Pennsylvania, and the Loyola University Modern Slavery Research Project. The studies drew on interviews with 911 homeless youth across 13 cities, including 12 cities where homeless young people accessed services through Covenant House between February 2014 and March 2017. Results reveal that nearly one-fifth of these youth were victims of human trafficking, including those trafficked for sex, labor, or both. 
Visit the Labor and Sex Trafficking Among Homeless Youth webpage.

National Educators to Stop Trafficking (NEST)
 
NEST aims to serve as a comprehensive clearinghouse to empower and equip educators by providing youth-focused human trafficking prevention resources. NEST provides age-appropriate human trafficking prevention curricula with the goal of teaching youth how to avoid being trafficked, stand up for victims of trafficking, and spread the word in their communities so that sexual exploitation and human trafficking become a thing of the past.
Visit the National Educators to Stop Trafficking (NEST) website.

National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC): 1-888-373-7888
 
Operated by Polaris Project, the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC) is a national, toll-free hotline, available to answer calls from anywhere in the United States, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, every day of the year. The NHTRC is not a government entity, law enforcement or an immigration authority. Call for confidential help and information. 
Visit the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC) webpage.

Polaris Project
 
Polaris Project is one of the leading organizations in the global fight against human trafficking and modern-day slavery. Named after the North Star "Polaris" that guided slaves to freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project is transforming the way that individuals and communities respond to human trafficking in the U.S. and globally. By successfully pushing for stronger federal and state laws, operating the National Human Trafficking Resource Center hotline (1-888-373-7888), conducting trainings, and providing vital services to victims of trafficking, Polaris Project creates long-term solutions that move our society closer to a world without slavery.
Visit the Polaris Project website.
Visit Polaris Project's Online Training webpage.
Visit Polaris Project's National Human Trafficking Resource Center hotline webpage
Download Polaris Project's Comprehensive Human Trafficking Assessment.
Download Polaris Project's Human Trafficking Assessment for Runaway and Homeless Youth
Download Polaris Project's Tools for Educators.

Pretesting a Human Trafficking Screening Tool in the Child Welfare and Runaway and Homeless Youth Systems
 
Despite the fact that youth involved in the child welfare (CW) and runaway and homeless youth (RHY) systems are particularly vulnerable to being trafficked, there is no consensus screening tool to identify trafficking experiences among such youth. This study from the Urban Institute, developed a Human Trafficking Screening Tool (HTST) and pretested it with 617 RHY- and CW-involved youth. This research established that the screening tool is accessible to youth and easy to administer, and that both the full-length tool and a shorter version were effective in identifying youth who are trafficking victims in RHY and CW systems, though additional research with more youth is needed. 
Download Pretesting a Human Trafficking Screening Tool in the Child Welfare and Runaway and Homeless Youth Systems.

Surviving the Streets of New York: Experiences of LGBTQ Youth, YMSM, and YWSW Engaged in Survival Sex
 
In this report from the Urban Institute, 283 LGBTQ youth share powerful stories of being homeless in New York City, interfacing with peers, customers, service providers, law enforcement officials, and criminal justice personnel, and finding ways to survive despite the layers of adversity they face. They also make suggestions regarding the policy options they would like to see, and provide their opinions on what they perceive as harmful or helpful for their lives. 
Download Surviving the Streets of New York: Experiences of LGBTQ Youth, YMSM, and YWSW Engaged in Survival Sex.