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Trafficking and the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC)

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NCHE Resources

Sex Trafficking of Minors: What Schools Need to Know to Recognize and Respond to the Trafficking of Students
This brief, part of NCHE's Best Practices in Homeless Education series, provides educators with an overview of the issue of minor sex trafficking and suggests specific steps that schools can take to respond to signs of trafficking among its students. It also offers suggestions for how State Coordinators for Homeless Education and local homeless education liaisons can help guide their states' and school districts' efforts to address trafficking within schools.
Download Sex Trafficking of Minors: What Schools Need to Know to Recognize and Respond to the Trafficking of Students.


Other Resources

Child Welfare and Human Trafficking
This issue brief from the Child Welfare Information Gateway provides a broad overview of the crossover between the child welfare field and work currently being done to prevent and respond to the trafficking of children and youth in the United States. The brief provides basic background information, including highlights of federal legislation, and discusses the needs of victims and the ways that child welfare agencies can address the problem of the trafficking of children.
Visit the Child Welfare and Human Trafficking issue brief webpage.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children /Sex Trafficking
This literature review from the U.S. Department of Justice's Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) provides an overview of issues related to the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and sex trafficking, covering such topics as the definition of CSEC, antitrafficking legislation, characteristics of CSEC and sex trafficked children, pathways to CSEC involvement, and outcome evidence for CSEC prevention and intervention programs.
Download Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children /Sex Trafficking.

Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States
This report from The Institute of Medicine (IOM) examines the commercial sexual exploitation of minors within the United States. It offers recommendations concerning strategies for responding to commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States, new legislative approaches, and a research agenda. The report concludes that efforts to prevent, identify, and respond to the commercial sexual exploitation of minors in the United States require better collaborative approaches. These efforts need to confront demand and the individuals who commit and benefit from these crimes. The recommendations in the report have the potential to advance and strengthen the nation's emerging efforts to prevent, identify, and respond to commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors.
Download Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States.

FAIR Girls (Free • Aware • Inspired • Restored)
FAIR Girls offers compassionate care to prevent the exploitation of all girls, with a special emphasis on girls who have experienced homelessness, life inside the foster care system, sexual abuse, and trafficking. Through prevention education, compassionate care, and survivor inclusive advocacy, FAIR Girls creates opportunities for girls to become confident, happy, healthy young women.
Visit the FAIR Girls website.

Homeless Youth and Sexual Exploitation: Research Findings and Practice Implications
Homeless youth surviving day-to-day on the streets are at constant risk of solicitation and sexual exploitation. Homeless youth are far more likely to be physically and sexually victimized than their peers who are housed, and they are more likely to experience repeated episodes of sexual assaults. This publication from the National Alliance to End Homelessness (NAEH) reviews the research and practice implications for community-based services.
Download Homeless Youth and Sexual Exploitation: Research Findings and Practice Implications.

Homelessness, Survival Sex and Human Trafficking: As Experienced by the Youth of Covenant House New York
This May 2013 report from Covenant House documents the results of one of the largest human trafficking studies among homeless youth in New York history. Based on the work of researchers from Covenant House and Fordham University, the report highlights key findings about the trafficking of homeless youth based on interviews with almost 200 randomly selected homeless youth.
Download Homelessness, Survival Sex and Human Trafficking: As Experienced by the Youth of Covenant House New York.

Human Trafficking in America's Schools
Human trafficking currently is one of the world's most profitable criminal enterprises. Trafficking is not only occurring overseas; it is occurring right here in the United States, with schools are becoming a target area for recruitment. This pioneering guide, funded through the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Safe and Healthy Students, will help school officials understand how human trafficking impacts schools; recognize the indicators of possible child trafficking; and develop policies, protocols, and partnerships to address and prevent the exploitation of children.
Download Human Trafficking in America's Schools.

Human Trafficking Trends in the United States: National Human Trafficking Resource Center 20072012
This report from The Polaris Project summarizes findings and trends from five years of data collected from the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC). The report is based on the information learned from NHTRC hotline interactions during the first five years of its operation by Polaris Project. It highlights the most common forms of human trafficking that are reported to the NHTRC and provides a revealing snapshot of human trafficking across the United States.
Download Human Trafficking Trends in the United States: National Human Trafficking Resource Center 20072012.

Innocence Lost National Initiative
Innocence Lost is a joint initiative of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (NCMEC), and the U.S. Department of Justice's Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section. The initiative aims to address the growing problem of domestic child sex slavery in the form of child prostitution in the United States. The initiative provides useful and informative resources about the issue of the commercial sexual exploitation of children.
Visit the Innocence Lost National Initiative website.

National Educators to Stop Trafficking (NEST)
NEST aims to serve as a comprehensive clearinghouse to empower and equip educators by providing youth-focused human trafficking prevention resources. NEST provides age-appropriate human trafficking prevention curricula with the goal of teaching youth how to avoid being trafficked, stand up for victims of trafficking, and spread the word in their communities so that sexual exploitation and human trafficking become a thing of the past.
Visit the National Educators to Stop Trafficking (NEST) webpage.

National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC): 1-888-3737-888
Operated by Polaris Project, the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC) is a national, toll-free hotline, available to answer calls from anywhere in the United States, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, every day of the year. The NHTRC is not a government entity, law enforcement or an immigration authority. Call for confidential help and information.
Visit the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC) webpage.

Polaris Project
Polaris Project is one of the leading organizations in the global fight against human trafficking and modern-day slavery. Named after the North Star "Polaris" that guided slaves to freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project is transforming the way that individuals and communities respond to human trafficking in the U.S. and globally. By successfully pushing for stronger federal and state laws, operating the National Human Trafficking Resource Center hotline (1-888-373-7888), conducting trainings, and providing vital services to victims of trafficking, Polaris Project creates long-term solutions that move our society closer to a world without slavery.
Visit the Polaris Project website.
Visit Polaris Project's Online Training webpage.
Visit Polaris Project's National Human Trafficking Resource Center hotline webpage.
Download Polaris Project's Comprehensive Human Trafficking Assessment.
Download Polaris Project's Human Trafficking Assessment for Runaway and Homeless Youth.
Download Polaris Project's Tools for Educators.

Surviving the Streets of New York: Experiences of LGBTQ Youth, YMSM, and YWSW Engaged in Survival Sex
In this report from the Urban Institute, 283 LGBTQ youth share powerful stories of being homeless in New York City, interfacing with peers, customers, service providers, law enforcement officials, and criminal justice personnel, and finding ways to survive despite the layers of adversity they face. They also make suggestions regarding the policy options they would like to see, and provide their opinions on what they perceive as harmful or helpful for their lives.
Download Surviving the Streets of New York: Experiences of LGBTQ Youth, YMSM, and YWSW Engaged in Survival Sex.

U.S. Department Education: Human Trafficking Fact Sheet for Schools
This fact sheet from the U.S. Department of Education discusses human trafficking and its effects on U.S. schools. Topics include:
  • What Is Human Trafficking?;
  • What Is the Extent of Human Trafficking in the United States?;
  • How Does Human Trafficking Affect Our Schools?;
  • How Do I Identify a Victim of Human Trafficking?;
  • How Do I Report a Suspected Incidence of Human Trafficking?;
  • How Does the United States Help Victims of Human Trafficking?; and
  • Additional Resources and Publications
    Read the fact sheet.


  • Sample Forms, Materials, and Policies

    Grossmont Union High School District (CA): Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) Protocol
    This school district protocol provides specific guidance on how district employees should respond to suspected recruitment or actual exploitation by a student, a suspected CSEC victim, and/or a confirmed CSEC victim.
    Download the Grossmont Union High School District (CA): Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) Protocol.

    Madison Metropolitan School District (WI): Trafficking Protocol
    This school district protocol provides specific guidance on how district employees should respond to suspected trafficking victims, including when immediate danger may be present.
    Download the Madison Metropolitan School District (WI): Trafficking Protocol.

    Virginia PTA (VAPTA) Resolution on Child Trafficking
    This resolution from the Virginia Parent Teacher Association (PTA) elaborates VAPTA's commitment to promote awareness about child trafficking among VAPTA members, support VA public schools and communities in providing awareness and training materials, and advocate for strategies for the prevention of child trafficking.
    Download the Virginia PTA (VAPTA) Resolution on Child Trafficking.

    Virginia SB 259 Human Trafficking; Board of Education to Provide Information for Local School Division Staff
    This Virginia state law requires the Virginia Board of Education, in collaboration with the Virginia Department of Social Services, to provide awareness and training materials for local school division staff on human trafficking, including strategies for the prevention of the trafficking of children.
    View the full text of Virginia SB 259.
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    The National Center for Homeless Education (NCHE) is the U.S. Department of Education's technical assistance center for the federal Education for Homeless Children and Youth (EHCY) Program. NCHE is housed at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro.

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