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Trafficking and the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC)

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NCHE Resources

Sex Trafficking of Minors: What Schools Need to Know to Recognize and Respond to the Trafficking of Students
This brief, part of NCHE's Best Practices in Homeless Education series, provides educators with an overview of the issue of minor sex trafficking and suggests specific steps that schools can take to respond to signs of trafficking among its students. It also offers suggestions for how State Coordinators for Homeless Education and local homeless education liaisons can help guide their states' and school districts' efforts to address trafficking within schools.
Download Sex Trafficking of Minors: What Schools Need to Know to Recognize and Respond to the Trafficking of Students.


Other Resources

Bought and Sold: Recognizing and Assisting Youth Victims of Domestic Sex Trafficking
This guide from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Administration for Children and Families is for youth and family services professionals who come in direct contact with young people who may be sexually exploited or trafficked. Readers will learn who is most at risk, what to look for, what exploited and trafficked young people need, and where to get additional resources and support.
Download Bought and Sold: Recognizing and Assisting Youth Victims of Domestic Sex Trafficking.

Child Welfare and Human Trafficking
This issue brief from the Child Welfare Information Gateway provides a broad overview of the crossover between the child welfare field and work currently being done to prevent and respond to the trafficking of children and youth in the United States. The brief provides basic background information, including highlights of federal legislation, and discusses the needs of victims and the ways that child welfare agencies can address the problem of the trafficking of children.
Visit the Child Welfare and Human Trafficking issue brief webpage.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children /Sex Trafficking
This literature review from the U.S. Department of Justice's Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) provides an overview of issues related to the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and sex trafficking, covering such topics as the definition of CSEC, antitrafficking legislation, characteristics of CSEC and sex trafficked children, pathways to CSEC involvement, and outcome evidence for CSEC prevention and intervention programs.
Download Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children /Sex Trafficking.

Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States
This report from The Institute of Medicine (IOM) examines the commercial sexual exploitation of minors within the United States. It offers recommendations concerning strategies for responding to commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States, new legislative approaches, and a research agenda. The report concludes that efforts to prevent, identify, and respond to the commercial sexual exploitation of minors in the United States require better collaborative approaches. These efforts need to confront demand and the individuals who commit and benefit from these crimes. The recommendations in the report have the potential to advance and strengthen the nation's emerging efforts to prevent, identify, and respond to commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors.
Download Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States.

Human Trafficking Awareness for the General Public
This free 1-hour online course from Stanford University Online provides basic training on human trafficking, aiming to educate people on how to spot it and what to do about it in their own communities. The training covers the definition of human trafficking, its prevalence, and the places and industries in which it occurs. It examine whom it affects and the techniques used to force people into trafficking and hold them there. The training assumes no prior knowledge of human trafficking.
Visit the Human Trafficking Awareness for the General Public training webpage.

Human Trafficking in America's Schools
Human trafficking currently is one of the world's most profitable criminal enterprises. Trafficking is not only occurring overseas; it is occurring right here in the United States, with schools are becoming a target area for recruitment. This pioneering guide, funded through the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Safe and Healthy Students, will help school officials understand how human trafficking impacts schools; recognize the indicators of possible child trafficking; and develop policies, protocols, and partnerships to address and prevent the exploitation of children.
Download Human Trafficking in America's Schools.

Human Trafficking Trends in the United States: National Human Trafficking Resource Center 2007-2012
This report from The Polaris Project summarizes findings and trends from five years of data collected from the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC). The report is based on the information learned from NHTRC hotline interactions during the first five years of its operation by Polaris Project. It highlights the most common forms of human trafficking that are reported to the NHTRC and provides a revealing snapshot of human trafficking across the United States.
Download Human Trafficking Trends in the United States: National Human Trafficking Resource Center 2007-2012.

Labor and Sex Trafficking Among Homeless Youth
This website details findings from two groundbreaking studies of Covenant House youth by The Field Center for Children’s Policy, Practice & Research at the University of Pennsylvania, and the Loyola University Modern Slavery Research Project. The studies drew on interviews with 911 homeless youth across 13 cities, including 12 cities where homeless young people accessed services through Covenant House between February 2014 and March 2017. Results reveal that nearly one-fifth of these youth were victims of human trafficking, including those trafficked for sex, labor, or both.
Visit the Labor and Sex Trafficking Among Homeless Youth webpage.

National Educators to Stop Trafficking (NEST)
NEST aims to serve as a comprehensive clearinghouse to empower and equip educators by providing youth-focused human trafficking prevention resources. NEST provides age-appropriate human trafficking prevention curricula with the goal of teaching youth how to avoid being trafficked, stand up for victims of trafficking, and spread the word in their communities so that sexual exploitation and human trafficking become a thing of the past.
Visit the National Educators to Stop Trafficking (NEST) webpage.

National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC): 1-888-3737-888
Operated by Polaris Project, the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC) is a national, toll-free hotline, available to answer calls from anywhere in the United States, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, every day of the year. The NHTRC is not a government entity, law enforcement or an immigration authority. Call for confidential help and information.
Visit the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC) webpage.

Polaris Project
Polaris Project is one of the leading organizations in the global fight against human trafficking and modern-day slavery. Named after the North Star "Polaris" that guided slaves to freedom along the Underground Railroad, Polaris Project is transforming the way that individuals and communities respond to human trafficking in the U.S. and globally. By successfully pushing for stronger federal and state laws, operating the National Human Trafficking Resource Center hotline (1-888-373-7888), conducting trainings, and providing vital services to victims of trafficking, Polaris Project creates long-term solutions that move our society closer to a world without slavery.
Visit the Polaris Project website.
Visit Polaris Project's Online Training webpage.
Visit Polaris Project's National Human Trafficking Resource Center hotline webpage.
Download Polaris Project's Comprehensive Human Trafficking Assessment.
Download Polaris Project's Human Trafficking Assessment for Runaway and Homeless Youth.
Download Polaris Project's Tools for Educators.

Surviving the Streets of New York: Experiences of LGBTQ Youth, YMSM, and YWSW Engaged in Survival Sex
In this report from the Urban Institute, 283 LGBTQ youth share powerful stories of being homeless in New York City, interfacing with peers, customers, service providers, law enforcement officials, and criminal justice personnel, and finding ways to survive despite the layers of adversity they face. They also make suggestions regarding the policy options they would like to see, and provide their opinions on what they perceive as harmful or helpful for their lives.
Download Surviving the Streets of New York: Experiences of LGBTQ Youth, YMSM, and YWSW Engaged in Survival Sex.



Sample Forms, Materials, and Policies

Grossmont Union High School District (CA): Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) Protocol
This school district protocol provides specific guidance on how district employees should respond to suspected recruitment or actual exploitation by a student, a suspected CSEC victim, and/or a confirmed CSEC victim.
Download the Grossmont Union High School District (CA): Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) Protocol.

Madison Metropolitan School District (WI): Trafficking Protocol
This school district protocol provides specific guidance on how district employees should respond to suspected trafficking victims, including when immediate danger may be present.
Download the Madison Metropolitan School District (WI): Trafficking Protocol.

Virginia SB 259 Human Trafficking; Board of Education to Provide Information for Local School Division Staff
This Virginia state law requires the Virginia Board of Education, in collaboration with the Virginia Department of Social Services, to provide awareness and training materials for local school division staff on human trafficking, including strategies for the prevention of the trafficking of children.
View the full text of Virginia SB 259.
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The National Center for Homeless Education (NCHE) is the U.S. Department of Education's technical assistance center for the federal Education for Homeless Children and Youth (EHCY) Program. NCHE is housed at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro.

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